Raised under a Christian pacifist upbringing Gordon Hirabayashi was opposed to the plans for evacuation of persons of Japanese ancestry from the West Coast. When the order came to register for relocation he turned himself in to the FBI intending to create a test case challenging the government’s right to incarcerate Japanese Americans without due process.
A law school graduate from the University of Oregon Minoru Yasui objected to the curfew order because it violated the civil rights of Japanese Americans and decided to oppose the curfew law as a test case.
When Pearl Harbor occurred Fred Korematsu refused to comply with orders to register for relocation and went into hiding. When found he was arrested and jailed. Contacted by the director of the ACLU he agreed to have his be a test case contesting the legality of the internment of Japanese Americans.